Assessments and evaluations

National programmes conduct assessments of VMMC knowledge, attitudes, and practices and situation analyses to inform the design of strategies and services to expand access to voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). As scale-up progresses, monitoring and evaluation reports and the results of evaluation studies are also becoming available, providing recommendations for improving the safety, efficiency, and reach of VMMC programmes.


VMMC infographic

An infographic depicts evidence from three countries that community-based voluntary medical male circumcision campaigns combined with mass media promotion can change attitudes toward VMMC.

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Impact of Health Communication on VMMC

A two-page fact sheet summarises the evidence on the impact of health communication on knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to voluntary medical male circumcision.

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Etude d’Acceptabilite et de Faisabilite de la Circoncision Masculine au sein de la Population Sexuellement Active du Burundi

This report presents the results of a study of the feasibility and acceptability of introducing voluntary medical male circumcision in Burundi.

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End-Term Review of Kenya’s Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programme (2008-2013)

An assessment report documents progress made during the first phase of Kenya's voluntary medical male circumcision programme, when almost 800,000 men and boys were circumcised.

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The Circumcision Impact Study in Kisumu, Kenya: 2008–2013

The interim results of the Circumcision Impact Study, a series of three household surveys conducted in Kisumu, Kenya, to assess the impact of the voluntary medical male circumcision programme, are described in this report.

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South Africa


A film shot in South Africa illustrates how impact evaluations can test innovative ideas to increase demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC).

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Desktop Review of Male Circumcision Research and Services in South Africa, January 2010

Researchers conducted this desk review of local data on male circumcision as part of a situational analysis to inform implementation of medical male circumcision in South Africa.

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Situation Analysis for Male Circumcision in Tanzania: Final Report

The study described in this report investigated the context, extent, and pattern of male circumcision practices in selected areas of Tanzania to provide recommendations on rolling out voluntary medical male circumcision services.

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HCP Uganda 2010 Survey Highlights

To assess progress on public education about safe male circumcision and HIV in Uganda and inform future communication, the Health Communication Partnership (HCP) survey included several questions on male circumcision.

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Situation Analysis to Determine the Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision Promotion in Uganda

The purpose of the study described in this report was to provide Ugandan decision makers with adequate information to decide whether and how to pursue promoting voluntary medical male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy.

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Evaluation of the Informed Consent Process

The Population Council evaluated the process for obtaining the informed consent of male circumcision clients as voluntary medical male circumcision services were being scaled up

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Male Circumcision Situation Analysis: A Report on the National Male Circumcision Situation Analysis Conducted by the Ministry of Health and Co-operating Partners

In 2009 the Zambian Ministry of Health and its partners conducted a situation analysis to assess current practice and inform the design of effective interventions to scale up voluntary medical male circumcision services.

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